Practical training. A practical guide to the installation of load-bearing structures.


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A practical guide to the installation of load-bearing structures.

This material is allowed to be used for educational purposes.

Installation of solar panels has a specially developed installation technology. In addition, there are several important requirements regarding the installation process.

Photovoltaic modules should be placed in the most lit place. This may be the roof of the object, the facade or the area near the house. The presence of dimming even a small part of the surface of the photovoltaic module is unacceptable.

Solar panels should be installed on the south side of the roof of a residential building. In this case, solar radiation that enters the surface of the module will have maximum performance.

During installation work, the angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module should be taken into account. If the panels are installed with their own hands, then the angle of inclination should be close to the horizon. For different geographical areas, the angle of inclination of the panels is different. It should also be noted that periodic changes in the angle of inclination of the surface can increase productivity. In the summer, the angle should be done more by 12 degrees. While in winter, it should be reduced by the same 12 degrees. If such manipulations are not possible, then the installation angle of the panels is chosen optimal in accordance with the indicators of the geographical latitude of the region.

The location of solar panels plays an important role in servicing solar power plants. When the photovoltaic modules are installed on a personal plot, the distance from the surface of the panel to the soil should be at least half a meter. This will eliminate the possibility of overlapping the surface with precipitation in the form of snow. If the solar panels are planned to be used only in the summer, then raising them above the surface of the earth is not necessary.

An important point in the installation of roof solar power plants is to take into account the type of roof.

The roof of each individual object has a number of individual features that can determine the further installation technology. It should be noted that even the color of the roof plays an important role. If the roof of the building is dark, then it is most susceptible to strong heat. If you install photovoltaic modules on such a roof, then overheating of the surface cannot be avoided. On such roofs before installation, a special coating of light shade is installed.

Installing PV modules on flat roofs Installing

solar modules on this type of roof is easy. We can say that this type of surface is the most suitable for installing panels. Successful installation in this case is achieved through the acquisition of special support frames. They should be installed in a southerly direction and the modules should be fixed on their surface at a set angle. If the calculated capacity of the power plant is high enough and the roof area is small, then multi-tier support frames will be the best option.

The installation of the panel on the surface of a sloping roof

This type of surface for installing the solar module involves installation using a special type of mount. As a rule, they come complete with solar panels. These installation work involves the mandatory accounting of the material from which the roof is made. This will optimally select the mounting structures that are specially designed for various types of roofs. Their mutual replacement is excluded.

During installation work on the surface of an inclined roof, special attention should be paid to the fact that a clearance must be established between the electrical module and the roof surface. It is necessary to ensure free air circulation. Thus, the panel itself can be cooled naturally.

Between the rows of installed photovoltaic modules it is imperative to maintain a distance. This condition avoids the shadowing of the lower modules by the upper ones. In this calculation, you should focus on the size of the row, that is, the height of the module. The row spacing should be at least 1.7 of the panel height. In addition, there is a need to make gaps between the row modules. This allows you to make the installation process more convenient and facilitate the process of connecting the station, and carrying out maintenance work in the future.

An important role in the installation of solar panels is played by the length of the patch cables. The longer the cable, the higher the energy loss of the station. This applies to the connection of neighboring modules, as well as the cables that connect the array of panels with other devices of the station. 

For example, the cable connecting the energy storage device to the charge controller should not be longer than four meters.

When carrying out installation work, it should be borne in mind that the photovoltaic module is fixed at four points. You should also pay attention to the fact that most often there are supporting structures in which fasteners are carried out along the long side of the module. This means that the position of the panel will be vertical.

Often, clamp type clamps are used to attach the module. In addition, for this purpose, bolts that are fixed along the edges of the supporting structures are suitable. Any mounting option involves the use of a narrowly targeted device that is designed for a specific type of installation. It is impossible to replace them at your discretion with others.

Making mistakes during installation work and installing a poor-quality photoelectric module can provoke a fire. In the accessibility zone, not far from the array of solar modules, a fire extinguisher should be located.

Installation of photovoltaic panels implies their reliable and fixed installation on load-bearing structures in a correctly defined direction. In this case, metal structures can either be firmly fixed or with the use of tracking systems. 

Installation of tracker systems increases the efficiency of solar modules by 30%. Such load-bearing structures are a movable frame, which periodically changes the angle of inclination of the surface of the solar panel to follow the sun.

Special sensors are installed on the surface of the frame, which allow you to track the position of the sun and thereby increase the level of productivity of the solar station.

The financial costs of acquiring tracking systems are higher than with the purchase of fixed load-bearing structures. It should be noted that increased investments make it possible to increase income from the sale of electricity by increasing generation volumes.

When choosing the optimal tracking system, an individual role plays an important role. Different regions suggest a certain level of cloudiness and light exposure on the surface of solar panels. Depending on these indicators, the selection of optimal load-bearing structures for photovoltaic modules is carried out.

Next, we will consider a clear algorithm for installing photovoltaic modules on the roof of a residential building.

Earlier, we noted that the dark color of the roof of the house leads to overheating of photovoltaic panels. To avoid this, before starting installation work, you should install a light base on the roof. For this purpose, the best option is a light barrier. It will provide the roof with protection against excessive humidity and eliminate the likelihood of overheating of the solar panel. It should be noted that the installation angle of the photovoltaic module should be 30 degrees.

Before the immediate start of installation work, it is necessary to mark the roof. Marking will reduce the installation time of supporting structures and greatly simplify installation. The racks should be located in parallel, and the distance between them should be at least 1 m. The brackets are fixed directly to the roof by an anchor wedge or dowel. Its most suitable size is 6×65.

The installation procedure for this item is simple and fairly clear:

  1. Initially, it is necessary to make a hole of a suitable diameter.
  2. The holes should be filled with special grease. In its role, solidol or similar compounds may act.
  3. The next step is to install the anchor.

This method of fixation is the most reliable, since the anchor wedge is used to install metal structures on a brick or concrete base. Accordingly, this kind of fastening is able to withstand this kind of load.

An anchor wedge is fixed to the surface of the roof support rail, which holds the metal tile. If the roof is made of concrete, then installation work becomes much easier. This type of roof involves the installation of anchors in a meter from the next. In addition to the anchor, an 8×65 dowel can be used.

A likely option is also the use of roofing material. An important aspect is the presence in it of fiberglass, which has such properties as: small indicators of weight, stability, strength, ductility. This material can be used on the roof surface of various architectures and with a different angle of inclination.

It should be noted that installation is carried out in warm weather in the absence of high humidity.

In addition, special attention must be paid to the preliminary preparation of the surface for fastening. Initially, you need to clean up dirt and debris. The surface of the roof must be level. At the preliminary stage of preparation, degreasing of the surface material is carried out. You can use White Spirit as a degreaser. In addition, attention must be paid to the surface primer.

After all the above measures, it is necessary to lay the pre-heated roofing material on the surface of the bracket. It is important to note that the ruberoid coating should extend beyond the edge of the part by 5 or more centimeters. Continued installation will be possible only after cooling of the roofing material. Full cooling is not required, but a slight temperature reduction is necessary.

Next, the rail is mounted on the bracket. The best option is to use a galvanized profile. Its creation involves the use of hot dip galvanizing. This allows you to create a protective coating, the thickness of which is from 70 to 150 microns. This option eliminates the likelihood of rust and significantly extends the life of the supporting structures.

In order to avoid corrosion changes, aluminum fasteners should be preferred.

After installing the main structure, you can proceed to the installation of the cable part of the solar panels.

The DC cable should be laid under the metal structure. Cables serve as the connection of all solar panels with subsequent access to the switch and inverter. We attach the wires to the back of the profile with plastic clamps for ease of installation and to avoid environmental influences.

The solar panel itself is mounted on a galvanized profile such as “ LS-PROFI ”, which tolerates the vagaries of the external environment and does not lend itself to corrosion, which is extremely important for this process.

The profile is fastened with a bracket, with one side to the rail, and the other to the roof. All connections must be mounted with galvanized bolts (M8 or the like) using a drill or hammer.

It should be noted that when connecting, do not rush. It is necessary to fix the profiles between themselves with a nut and an M8 bolt, while creating a strong and reliable connection.

Rules for the operation of photovoltaic modules

Regular maintenance and maintenance of photovoltaic modules and other components of a solar power plant is the key to a quick return on financial investments in the installation of the facility. Devices requiring increased attention include electric cables, charge controllers, inverter units, energy storage devices, and electrical equipment.

If a specialist who is responsible for setting up the system and monitoring is attached to a solar object, the probability of the most productive and long-term operation of the devices is significantly increased.

A well-established power plant monitoring system plays an important role in maintenance. If this process is carried out comprehensively and professionally, the likelihood of breakage or malfunction is significantly reduced.

The process of assessing the life of solar power plant is characterized by the presence of certain parameters:

  1. Assessment of the state of the fastening of the components of the system of photovoltaic modules. If the fasteners are loose, for some reason missing or there are traces of rust, this will lead to failure of the system.
  2. The importance of the current state of an individual module. Construction work involves checking each individual panel for operability. It should be remembered that the failure of one solar panel leads to tangible losses in generation.
  3. Checking inverter installations for dust or excessive increase in temperature. If the inverter ventilation cooling system is cleaned regularly, then the life of the power plant increases markedly. In this case, the efficiency of the object does not tend to decrease. Such events should be carried out with any inverter, even one intended for outdoor installation in regions with bad weather conditions.
  4. The presence of grounding. The safety indicators of any object associated with electrical equipment directly depend on this parameter. Verification of contact safety and insulation should be carried out systematically.
  5. Check electrical wiring. The time of return on financial investments and the overall productivity of the plant is directly dependent on the serviceability of even such small elements as wires. Their condition, reliable connection and the absence of mechanical damage allows maintaining the set generation level without energy loss.
  6. Features of the location of the stations. A system of solar modules should be available for maintenance and repair work.
  7. Keeping clean. Photovoltaic modules that are free from pollution and dust can produce up to 20% more energy than those that are not properly maintained.

Manufacturers of photovoltaic modules declare as recommendations that planned activities in relation to system components should be carried out at least once every six months. In real conditions, the regularity of such events directly depends on the region where the solar power plant is located and the features of its work.

The future owner of a solar power plant should clearly understand that timely maintenance of the plant on a regular basis eliminates the possibility of defects and expensive repairs in the future.

In addition, you should pay attention to the fact that the purchase of solar panels of dubious quality, but at a reduced price, will soon lead to additional financial investments. The most economically feasible would be the acquisition of solar panels in which the price-quality ratio will be optimal.


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