Wind turbines with vertical axis of rotation


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Wind turbines like VAWT, that is, rotors with a vertical axis, were the earliest types of windmills known in ancient times. Currently, these types of turbines are not industrial applications. There are many varieties with promising features: low power consumption, efficient use on ships, yachts, in homes for one family, etc. Below are some solutions.

 Rotor Savonius

 In 1922, the Finnish engineer Sigurd Y. Savonius developed the construction of a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation. This is a device with a very simple design. The Savonius Rotor is often used as fans who build wind power plants as an economic mode of energy consumption and companies that are professionally involved in the production of wind turbines.

Unfortunately, the Savonius engine is characterized by a low efficiency of converting wind energy into useful energy. However, the Savonius engine differs reliability, simplicity of construction and low production costs.

During many Sandia Laboratories aerodynamic studies, it has been found that for a rotor of Savonius it can be significantly improved in the presence of conditions such as:

– two blades in the rotor – an increase in the number of rotors contributes to improving the efficiency of the turbine;

– the diameter of the gap should correspond to 0.1 – 0.15 cm;

– the shields that restrict the blade from above and below should be 5 – 10% larger than the diameter of the blades, so that the wind “does not go out” from the rotor;

 – In order to align the blades, it is recommended that two such rotors be rotated about 90 degrees around the axis.

 Rotor Darrieus

In 1931 Darrieus patented a rotor, which is now named after his name. Wind turbine of this type has practically zero starting torque, therefore preliminary charge is necessary. For acceleration of the rotor, the Darrieus electric drive is widely used, although non-traditional solutions are used, for example, two Savonius auxiliary rotors.

The Darrieus wind turbine is a device that uses a lifting force created by a fluid flow around a profile of the corresponding shape. The principle of generating a bearing, which in reality generates a torque in the Darrieus engine, as well as in the rotors H, is shown in the figure.

Darrieus turbines have found their greatest application in the US, where the company FloWind has installed a number of such turbines in California. These were buildings of 17 and 19 m in height, put into operation in the following order:

– turbine 142 kW 17 m, with a wind speed of 17 m / s

– a turbine with a capacity of 250 kW 19 m with a wind speed of 20 m / s.

Rotor Bolotov

At the moment, the world community has started to pay particular attention to small wind installations. These include rotor Bolotov. The design of the wind turbine is represented by a power plant in which the generator shaft is located vertically.

A distinctive feature of such a windmill is its versatility in various climatic conditions. This wind turbine captures air flow from all sides, which allows you to not waste time installing it in a certain direction. This wind turbine has the ability to speed up the flow of air entering it. This configuration allows the windmill to work efficiently at any wind speed.

Among the advantages of this wind turbine can be attributed and features of the location of the functional components of the system. Power storage, generator and electrical circuit are located on the ground, which greatly facilitates maintenance.

A unique place in the collection of effective wind turbines is the innovative turbine, which does not have blades. The company from Spain, Vortex Bladeless, managed to open a special vertical structure that became the basis for the turbocharged turbine. Here, the geometry in the tandem with the frequency of fluctuations in the air flow causes the air masses to rotate around this structure.

The alternative equipment has the form of a cone-shaped cylinder located vertically. Pilot installations have a height of about 6 meters, but developers say that the new versions will be even higher. The essence of the work of such a turbine is the presence of magnets and special coils, which not only generate energy, but also rock up the device in the rhythm of air flow. This is possible due to the correct configuration of the structure (meaning the frequency). A loose turbine is actually a resonant wind turbine.


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