Головна Автори Інформація по Надточей Кирилл

Надточей Кирилл

Fidonet is a network of people who know

Where to find knowledgeable people? A must-see for anyone who is involved in alternative energy at the professional or hobby level. Finding a person who knows more, has some experience and can certainly be difficult to give advice is difficult. Internet forums are littered with various experts who have miraculously launched their 100W panel and now consider themselves professionals.

Of course, the ideal option is to go directly to the store where you have purchased solar panels, but often the retailer is not very versed in their range. Especially at an early stage of market development.

Fidonet is a network of knowers

Even before the advent of the Internet, there was a smaller but completely independent Fidonet network. It brought together enthusiasts from various fields from programmers to alternative energy enthusiasts. Thus, it is a kind of concentrate on expert opinion and is so successful that it is popular, despite a large number of forums and the Internet. Also, Fidonet has no spam, banner ads, viruses, and pseudo-experts. Here you will find expert help from people close to you in spirit.

How to get in Fidonet?

You can get to Fidonet by registering at http://fido.odessa.ua/ or through friendly for us WEB BBS https://wfido.ru/a/RU.ALT.ENERGY. We are waiting for your questions!

(Un) clean nuclear power. Is an atom the best way out?

There are two common myths: an atomic kilowatt costs 50 cents, and nuclear power is the most environmentally friendly. The bottom line is that the NPP itself has no exhausts like the TPP. It does not require a constant supply of such amount of fuel, and the emission of radionuclides during coal combustion significantly exceeds the level of radiation damage from nuclear power plants. But the real situation is quite different. Especially for Ukraine.

Nuclear fuel

WPPs and SESs do not need to disrupt giant quarries, mines and pollute large areas with waste. It should not be forgotten that the production of nuclear fuel is very similar to the production of coal or iron, and brings similar environmental damage.

Feeding the enemy

Nuclear fuel also needs to be enriched, which can only be done by five companies in the world. Of these, Ukraine cooperates with the American Westinghouse, and to a greater extent the Russian Rosatom. This cooperation means full maintenance of the reactors, not just the purchase of fuel elements. Therefore, it is difficult to link the increase in the number of accidents at the Ukrainian nuclear power plant by 5 times in recent years with the fact that Russian engineers work at strategic sites. In the first 5 months of 2016 alone, there were 9 reactor emergency stops.

Reactors cannot work forever

Another factor is the need to continuously extend the life of the units, which can cost 4-6 billion units for a total capacity of 1 GW. At this cost, it is possible to build an SES of up to 600 MW from scratch. Or purchase 20 thousand sets of 30 kilowatt SES. In addition, SES cannot lead to a nuclear catastrophe, as with the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which still requires annual budget allocations for social payments and maintenance of the station itself.

Waste

Nuclear fuel also needs recycling. Here again, Ukraine cooperates with the aggressor country and has paid over $ 1.5 billion over the last 10 years. But plans to build a used nuclear fuel repository will reduce those costs.

50 cents per kilowatt – who can pay it?

Putting all these factors together, the cost of an atomic kilowatt should far exceed the price of 168 cents. And the only reason that the Ukrainian atom remains cheap enough is because Ukraine inherited power units and made no initial investments. But considering the construction of new nuclear power plants, the price should be much higher.

In fact, you can get a rate of 50 cents per kWh from a solar panel. For this purpose a set of a solar power plant on 30 kW worth 250 thousand UAH should work only 9-10 years for 5 hours a day. The warranty for the inverter of such a set is 5 years, and for the solar panels themselves as much as 25 years. And the total area of ​​solar panels will be 160 square meters under which only 2 acres of the suburban area is sufficient.

This is provided that you will consume all the electricity without selling it at the green tariff.

Solar panel and wind power plant anti-theft protection

Returning from vacation and not seeing your solar power plant or windmill is a very likely scenario now. Decades ago, windmills and solar panels were not considered a toy. But with the rise in the cost of electricity and the popularization of green tariffs, more and more homeowners have begun to use roof and land areas to produce green electricity. At present, this market is developing rapidly, attracting the attention of thieves.

Thefts of European scale

Germany has long been confronted with the problem of thefts at solar power plants. And in recent years, professional thefts have started breaking all records. At one time, they can remove, detach and remove dozens, even hundreds, of solar panels of any size. Particular attention should be paid to the theft of the town of Arnsberg from a local solar farm. From there, in October 2014, 250 solar cells measuring 1 * 2 meters and weighing 30 kg each were taken out at a time. That means that 7.5 tons of solar panels were stolen. And according to Frank Fidler, CEO of the second-hand alternative energy sales platform, the number of thefts will continue to increase.

Total losses for the first quarter of 2015 from thefts on the SES in Germany amounted to 500 thousand euros.

Thus, the project of a solar road in China was also threatened. The new highway consists of solar panels under a thick protective glass, and also includes inductive charging, which allows you to recharge some electric vehicles on the go. But as it turned out, some of the road was just stolen a few days after the highway was opened. Although in this case, the cause of the theft is not clear, because the price of solar panels in the Celestial is very low, and the scale of theft is very small and more likely it is related to industrial espionage.

Power thefts in Ukraine

In 2018, there was a large-scale theft of solar in Kherson region. 51 solar panels were stolen from the solar farm with a total value of UAH 375 thousand. Fortunately, police were able to locate and apprehend the attackers and return the solar panels to the owner. Another high-profile case occurred at a Jewish cemetery in Mukachevo. Not only the solar panel was stolen by the thefts, but also the inverter, battery and other equipment, which had previously installed a patron for night lighting in the cemetery.

From the thefts of solar panels are affected by gas distribution points of Kyiv region. Thus, Kyivgas installs telemetry to protect its solar panels from theft.

Why are windmills and solar panels easy to steal?

The problem is that solar panels and windmills have virtually no theft protection. Just remove the panel or windmill from the mount, disconnect it from the inverter and load it into the car. Solar panels with very rare exceptions have mechanical anti-theft systems.

How to protect your power plant?

Video surveillance

24/7 video surveillance allows you to monitor your power plant around the clock, and when connected through the network to watch it from anywhere in the world. And the video itself allows you to find thieves faster.

Video security

GPS / GSM tracking

In recent years, German security companies have been developing an integrated tracking system for solar panels. Which allows you to capture the moment of theft and catch criminals in the hot, or to track stolen solar panels. But a GPS tracker can cost more than $ 100, which greatly reduces the profitability of solar panels, so you can use GSM trackers if the panel design allows you to hide them inside. In the case of the windmill, it is a little easier to install a hidden tracker. The only problem is the constant power of the tracker.

Mechanical protection

Keep the solar panel in the box as the outside of the air conditioner does not work. Just like the windmill. Therefore, it is recommended to install additional mounts and angles for mechanical protection of solar panels and windmills. They will not allow to remove equipment so easily and quickly.

Protection clamp for solar panel

Alarms

The most effective protection is with alarms similar to those installed in electronics stores. A sensor is attached to the smartphone, which works when it is ripped off from the smartphone or cut through the wire and transmits an alarm to the remote control. Thus, the security company instantly learns about the thefts and can quickly arrest the attackers. Similar sensors are also installed on windows, doors and gates and work when switched off. There are also solutions that work when the cable is disconnected from the solar panel. They can already be ordered in China.

Solar panel alarm

IR motion detectors

Motion detectors are by no means one of the best solution for keeping strangers out of your home solar of wind power plant. It detect any motion big enough to be a human. And it completely ignores birds, snow and rain. But be aware, that there are some cheaper options.

Insurance

The best is to keep your power plant safe. But there can be a lot of factors that can make it dispensary from your roof or be shattered or scattered all over the place. It can be stolen as well as destroyed by a natural disaster. That’s why insurance is something you need as well. But be aware that this market in Ukraine is only starting to develop. Be careful while choosing an insurance company.

Summary and main problems of power plant protection

The new windmill is close to the car at its price, so installing comprehensive security with CCTV, alarm and trekking is quite logical. But with solar panels, it’s the opposite. With a solar panel price of 200-300 watts, like an average smartphone, installing security systems can delay the moment when the power plant returns its money. In addition, the services of security companies can generally make the SES unprofitable. That is why it is recommended

Power plant without gel battery. How to do it?

As the wind knows, especially solar power plants have batteries in their circuits for storing electricity. The reason is that solar power plants and wind farms do not have such stable energy output as hydropower plants, thermal power plants or nuclear power plants and batteries allow this to be leveled.

And usually these batteries have gel batteries.

What is a gel battery?

In a gel battery, the space between the lead plates is occupied by an electrolyte thickened to the gel level. Such a technology significantly increases the lifetime of such a battery, on average, this value exceeds 7 years, and the number of discharges of 0 that a gel battery can withstand exceeds 400. With stable operation at a power plant without constant full discharges, a gel battery can last a very long time. Its disadvantages are low vibration resistance and very low starting currents, which are precisely the disadvantages for use in a car.

Why is it profitable to find an alternative to a gel battery?

The cheapest Chinese gel batteries with a voltage of 12 V, this is the output voltage of an average solar panel, cost up to 400 UAH. But this is with a capacity of 5000 mAh. Which is slightly more than the battery capacity of an average laptop. Or it’s four 5000 mAh smartphone battery capacities. That is, for a very small solar panel at 100-200 watts, such a battery may be enough, but for a larger power plant it is necessary to connect several into one battery in parallel.

Is it more profitable to replace the gel battery with a lithium-ion one?

Li-ion lithium batteries are the most popular in electronics. They are in laptops, smartphones, cameras and other devices. But is it possible to save money on them? Fully! For example, a gel battery for 400 UAH with a voltage of 12 V and a capacity of 5 A * h accumulates only 60 W * h. Or 0.15 W * h / UAH. Compare this with an inexpensive 1.2 V Ni-Cd battery with a capacity of 2.7 Ah * at a price of 90 UAH. It turns out about 0.03 W * h / UAH, which is much less. But in gel batteries a very strong competitor.

With lithium batteries, the situation is different. At a price of 50 UAH, you can get a 3.7 V battery with a capacity of 3.4 A * h, which is approximately equal to 12.5 W * h or 0.25 W * h / UAH. Thus, a battery with lithium-ion batteries can replace gel batteries with a gain of 20-40%. For example, a battery with 3 series-connected such batteries will already have a voltage of 11.1 V with an energy capacity of 37.5 W * h and a price of 150 UAH. By connecting in parallel two such batteries with three batteries each, we get 75 Wh * at a price of 300 UAH. That is, 15 W * h more at a price less than 100 UAH.

Thus, you can easily increase capacity and significantly reduce battery costs. But remember that the real savings on battery life is how you use them, not how much you paid when you bought them.

Solar panels in the apartment. Is this possible?

Unfortunately, the average Ukrainian has the impression of solar panels, as something alien, distant, immense, or at all – a divorce. Some people even see the solar panel as “fun for the wealthy,” though the logic behind this is difficult to understand. And the arguments that the solar panel returns money for 2-5 years are only smiles.

Installing solar panels and forgetting how the electricity receipt looks like are in no hurry even in the villages. And even farther solar is for residents of apartment buildings, where there is simply neither a plot nor a roof for the installation of a power plant.

Trees. The north side. Other buildings.

Really. To grab at least one sun for “Khrushchev”, “Stalinka” or low “royal” housing stock – the task is not realistic. But even if you live above the tops of trees, and your windows do not fall shadow of other houses, then all plans can destroy the exit of the balcony or windows to the north. The east and west sides are also not very effective. Half the sun will be just missed.

What if I have a south side?

The windows on the south side of the nine-storey building are very good. So, on average, you can get up to 6 hours of solar battery life at full power. For example, take the typical 100 W solar panel at a price of 2000 UAH. Already used will be even cheaper. So on average we get 600 W * h or 0.54 UAH per day at the rate as of December 2019.

In a year such a panel will return 200 UAH, and will pay off completely in 10 years only. But how confident are you that electricity prices will remain at $ 0.90 per kilowatt for the population?

The main enemy of solar panels may soon disappear

Low tariffs for the population and high prices for businesses are the enemy of green energy in the private sector. All plans for wind or solar energy savings are broken into payback calculations. This relic of the Soviet Union is also misleading, as expensive electricity for businesses is already embedded in the price of any product or service on the market.

Electricity prices are projected to rise to UAH 1.66 / kWh next year. Therefore, the same panel will bring almost 1 hryvnia per day. Or 360 UAH per year. It’s been less than six years to get your money back. But if you think about the possibility of further increase in electricity prices by 20-30% annually, in 2021 the panel will bring already 1.25 UAH per day. And by 2023, even 2 UAH per day. That is, the panel will return its money only in 3 years.

Do you need anything else for a solar panel?

So. The solar panel itself cannot be connected directly to the laptop. She needs a battery, a controller and an inverter to get the usual 220V output. With specialized solar equipment, only a controller is sufficient, which costs up to 500 UAH for a 100W solar panel. Battery inverters can be, for example, automotive.

This gives you the opportunity to charge gadgets and laptops around the clock. Get clean power for light and, for example, a router. In addition, if you have a power outage, you have a backup power source.

And where to place this solar panel?

The window sill or balcony comes to mind first. But this is not a good idea. The solar panel is cumbersome and needs to be placed at the right angle. Note that the dimensions of a typical 100W solar panel are approximately 100x70cm. In addition, the solar panel will be a large black spot on the facade of the house. Therefore, for balconies and exterior windows, compact 10-30 W batteries are suitable.

There is room for a larger panel, for example, on the outdoor unit of the air conditioner. It is possible to partially preserve the aesthetic appearance of the building, and the solar panel itself can be placed at the most optimal angle to the horizon without disturbing anyone.

Conclusions

In general, few will see the point in a solar panel that will return money for 4-5 years and will continue to generate income of only 300-500 UAH per year. Therefore, solar panels within the city can only be seen in offices and pillars where they allow the landowner and the state to save money. For the average city dweller, at the moment, a solar panel can only be a way to support alternative energy and an interesting hobby, not a real way to save money. Although, the main role is still played by rising electricity prices. It is this factor that can turn the “toy for the wealthy” into a vital necessity.

Profitability of solar panels in 2019 and 2020. Law and tariffs.

Small power plants will help to save even more, but bring less profit.

Small SPPs on the ground can sell electricity

As you know, in April 2019, a law on green energy reform was adopted. It is the result of the painstaking work of representatives of the industry and the legislation of Ukraine. A particularly hot topic was the appearance of the amendment banning the sale of electricity at the “green tariff”, which was produced by power plants installed on the ground.

The law provided for the possibility of installing small solar power stations exclusively on the roofs of buildings. Thus, hundreds of small power plants with a capacity of up to 30 kW lost a large part of their income, so as to inflict a big blow not only on them, but also on producers, importers and the entire alternative energy industry. The revision was canceled and the law was finally signed on August 6. As a result, the owners of SPPs installed on the ground can sell electricity to the grid with “green tariff”.

How much can an SPPs get?

Also, the law regulates the fluctuations of the “green tariff” when the euro exchange rate changes and the level of the “green tariff” for renewable energy power plants with a capacity of up to 150 kW is regulated.

By 2020, from January 1, the green tariff will decrease for SES from 554.26 kopecks / kW · h to 498.17 kopecks / kW · h excluding VAT. And from January 1, 2025, the price of the sold kilowatt will be 443.74 kopecks / kWh without VAT. For wind farms, the tariff will be 320.02 kopecks / kWh, and from January 1, 2025 285.38 kopecks / kWh without VAT. Now sold a kilowatt produced by a windmill costs 356.31 kopecks / kWh without VAT.

Electricity Tariffs

The next 2020 will also be the year of raising electricity tariffs. For citizens, the tariff is fixed in law. When consuming 100 kW * h, you only have to pay 0.90 UAH per kW * h and 1.68 UAH per kW * h for consumption of more than 100 kW * h. At the same time, enterprises could pay a price of more than 3 UAH per kW * h.

Possible increase in tariffs by 90% for the population

Starting January 1, 2020, DTEK proposed increasing tariffs for the population by 86.7% to 1.68 UAH / kW * h for consumption up to 100 kW * h and up to 2.88 UAH / kW * h for consumption over 100 kW * h. It is proposed to consistently increase the cost of electricity by 25% during 2021–2023 by 25% annually for those who consume up to 500 kWh.

In parallel with this, the new head of NKREKP, Valery Tarasyuk, advocated equalizing tariffs for industrial and residential consumers. According to him, cross-subsidization only harms the industry. Aligning tariffs will also reduce the cost of electricity for enterprises by 15-20%.

The increase in tariffs will give a powerful impetus to the even greater development of the use of small windmills and solar panels in private households. It is worth noting that the increase in tariffs in recent years and in the future greatly reduces the time for which their own power plants fully pay off. That is why, now is the best time not only to think about our own SES or wind farm, but also to install them.

Solar panels. New for 2019 and 2020.

What to expect from the solar panel market in 2020 and 2019 brought interesting things?

In fact, there were no special emergency leaps. Solar energy continues to step forward with a solid confident step. The efficiency of various types of solar panels continues to grow, power increases by $ 100 in cost, and new methods for placing panels also appear.

The main thing is not what solar panels you have, but how you use them.

Floating solar power plants

In general, this idea is quite old and the first floating solar power station was built back in 2008. But in 2019, the idea arose to massively install such power plants on artificial ponds and reservoirs used for irrigation. That is, where there is no need to preserve flora and fauna. Thus, farmers receive more area for electricity production.

Built-in solar panels.

The inclusion of solar panels in house designs is gaining popularity. When building a country house or cottage there is no need to install panels separately. The system is already in the drawings of the house. This slightly reduces the cost of solar panels. But in Ukraine such an innovation is not yet popular.

Design

People have different tastes and not everyone likes the look of solar panels. For this reason, covering of solar panels with a film with a tile texture gains popularity. We see approximately such a film on the windows of public transport. Its use reduces battery performance, but some people are willing to make such sacrifices.

Solar fabric

A promising technology is tissue, which can convert light into electricity. Fabrics using perovskite already show the first positive results, but so far it is not known exactly when it will be possible to purchase a tent-power station and how much it will cost. Such a technology would be very useful, since a simple tent would then turn into a small power plant.

What is more profitable for me today?

In recent years, technology has not appeared on the market to change the rules of the game on the solar panel market for private households. As in previous years, the most advantageous solution is single-crystal silicon or polycrystalline silicon solar panels. Their price and effectiveness remain relatively constant with little movement towards increased efficiency.

Organic solar panels now show much lower silicon efficiencies. At the same time, batteries with perovskite or the use of other technologies are already showing record efficiency, which is rapidly approaching 50%. But such solar panels are very expensive, unprofitable and are in demand only in the space industry. Meanwhile, the owner of a private home needs a solar panel with a maximum watts per unit value. Area and mass are already of secondary importance.

Is buying used solar panels worth it?

In the EU, UK, USA etc, the market of used solar panels has long been developed. Private owners, power plants and industrial facilities are constantly updating their solar panels, replacing the old with more advanced ones. And decommissioned solar panels are for sale to new owners. For example, since 2010 the website SecondSol.de has been operating in Germany, this is a platform where thousands of used and new solar panels are sold, as well as accessories for them, electric vehicles and everything necessary for your own power plant. In Ukraine, this market is just beginning to develop.

Will a used solar battery work at all?

Yes, the power of solar panels is really lost over the years. But with a life of up to 20-40 years, a solar battery that has worked for 5-10 years can still serve the new owner. Especially considering that typical power degradation is only 0.5% per year.

Dependence of the level of degradation per year on the type of panel

Type of a solar panelYear degrading
Silicon
Monocrystalline (mono-Si)0,36%
Polycrystalline(poly-Si)0,64%
Amorphous (a-Si)0,87%
Non-silicon
Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)0,4%
Copper-indium-gallium selenide (CIGS)0,96%

The best choice is used mono-crystal silicon solar panels. Low rate of degradation and reasonably affordable price makes them very attractive to buy. But do not forget about telluride cadmium solar panels as well. A low annual degradation rate and a relatively low price are supplemented by some features: such panels work better on cloudy days, with partial darkening, and also work better across the entire radiation spectrum.

What else do you need to pay attention to?

The metrics above are typical. That is, it cannot be said that every single-crystal panel in the world will degrade at a rate of 0.36% per year. It all depends on many factors:

  • Manufacturer;
  • Model and technology;
  • Partial shadowing and adverse conditions;
  • Storage and care.

In fact, we can get a solar panel, which in 10 years of operation has lost only 2-3% of the power, and we can get a battery that on a sunny day only shows 50% of the declared power, although it is relatively new. For example, panels in power plants can show good results even after 40 years of operation. Because they were used in the right way. Although such batteries will already be considered technologically obsolete.

Manufacturers are required to indicate the level of degradation of the solar battery in its technical specifications. For example, modern panels have a low degradation rate and are often indicated directly on the “box”. Older models cannot please with such an advantage. They degrade faster, have worse power performance at low light levels, incidence of rays at an acute angle, and partial shadowing.

Remember! That you do not receive a guarantee when buying used solar panels. In the event of their failure or malfunctions, you will not be able to replace them under warranty or repair them in a service center.

Solar market fraud

Improper operation entails consequences. Strong temperature fluctuations, partial shading and other factors accelerate the degradation of crystalline as well as thin-film amorphous batteries. Finding such a “dead” solar panel on the market is very easy. Therefore, you should be very careful and always ask:

  • Actual power obtained at the beginning of operation;
  • Actual power received during decommissioning;
  • Conditions of use;
  • Year of manufacture, manufacturer and article.

The ideal case is when you buy solar panels that have not yet been dismantled and you have the opportunity to come and check them yourself. So you are 100% sure of the purchase. It is worth remembering that there are also scammers and unscrupulous sellers on the solar panel market who can overstate real power indicators to make a panel more pricey.

Why do they sell solar panels?

Does it make any sense to sell something that saves money or makes a profit? If we consider the solar energy market, then yes, it makes sense. Batteries are constantly evolving. The power level per $100 is constantly growing. The level of degradation decreases, new functionality appears, resistance to shading, weather conditions, and impacts increases as well.

Solar panels are similar to smartphones or computers – their productivity is also growing from year to year and large power plants regularly change panels to more efficient ones. Solar panels resistant to different operating conditions appear, and private owners replace the old with more reliable and functional new ones.

The market of used solar panels in Ukraine

Now the market for pre-owned solar panels in Ukraine is not yet developed. There are no separate websites, platforms and other ways to find a buyer or seller whom you can trust. On familiar bulletin boards, there are no ways to moderate and filter out potential scammers or unscrupulous sellers. Therefore, when buying, it is important to be extremely careful.

The acquisition of used solar panels abroad is also associated with problems. It is worth remembering about duties and delivery, which together can far exceed the cost of a brand new solar battery. Especially considering that the difference between a new and used panel is often only 10-30%.

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