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Куц Тина

A company from Turkey built a powerful wind farm in Odessa


According to company representatives, they are proud of this project. Guris wind farm is an example of overcoming the boundaries of power and the introduction of new technologies to increase the productivity of an alternative enterprise. This company from Turkey is a subsidiary of a large holding, thanks to which more than 1 gigawatt of new wind turbines has already appeared in Turkey.

It is worth noting that the new station (Ovid WPP) in the Ovidiopol district is not only the brainchild of a Turkish company in matters of construction, but also an effective investment project. According to preliminary data, the wind farm will be able to generate 118 million kilowatt-hours of energy during the year. In reality, the wind farm will be able to meet the energy needs of about 32 thousand households with a capacity of 30 MW.

A wind farm was installed in the Ovidiopol district of Odessa region. The wind farm is located between the resort Gribovka and Ovidiopol. The facility has 9 GE 3.6 installations. During the installation of the station, 137 turbines were used, having a hub height of 131.4 meters and a blade diameter of 137 meters. These wind turbines were specially produced at a factory in Turkey for this particular project. The turbines were released on February 28 of this year.

The Ovid Wind Wind Station has a capacity of 32.4 megawatts. The customer of the project is Ovid Veter LLC, Odessa. This project in the field of wind energy includes all objects of mechanical, electrical and civil installation. It is worth noting that the station will be commissioned by the end of September this year. Five wind turbines have already been installed, the sixth wind generator is awaiting completion of installation of the base. According to the installers, the full installation of one wind turbine takes about 3-4 days.

It is worth highlighting the fact that for this project, the Turkish company specially built a separate distribution substation. Such an integrated approach to installation will provide 32,000 houses with electricity and will not allow interruptions in the supply of electricity.

The Turkish company Guris has clearly shown that new, promising players are entering the global alternative energy market. Wind energy around the world is considered promising and promising. That is why more and more new companies offer innovative solutions for new projects.

From oil giant to green energy. Saudi Arabia is preparing for an energy revolution


The country, which is usually associated with huge oil resources, is beginning to switch to energy production from the sun and wind. Cause? Reduced oil consumption.

Oil savings could quadruple if in Riyadh, according to the plan, by the end of this decade, energy projects that use gas are developed, according to Wood McKenzie’s estimates. In general, the energy received from all new investments will be equal to the energy received by Saudi Arabia as a result of burning oil during the winter months.

Efforts to change the country’s energy profile are the result of actions by the ruling royal family. After a two-year budget deficit caused by low oil prices, the Saudi elite decided to continue developing the economy. In this case, the development of the economy means the development of industry, and this, in turn, requires more energy resources.

“Renewable energy is no longer a luxury,” comments Mario Marateftis, chief economist at Standard Chartered. “If domestic oil consumption remains at the current level, the Saudis will no longer have to save money to be able to export raw materials,” he adds.

According to the Minister of Energy of Saudi Arabia, Khalid Al-Falih, Saudi Arabia is counting on a sum of from 30 to 50 billion dollars of investment in renewable energy sources.

“The terms of renewable energy contracts will be so motivating that the cost of energy production will be the lowest in the world,” said the Minister of Energy of Saudi Arabia at a press conference. The first companies will have to build plants capable of generating 700 MW of wind and solar energy.

Saudi Aramco, the largest oil producer in Saudi Arabia, is responsible for most of the income of the Arab kingdom, filling 1 for every 10 barrels of oil sold in the world. In addition, the company has taken the first steps to include renewable energy sources in the economy.

To date, Saudi Aramco has created the country’s largest 10 MW solar power plant on the roof of a parking lot in the east of the country. In January, the company launched the first commercial wind turbine in the northeast. According to Aramco, these facilities contributed to reducing the demand for oil by 30,000 barrels per day due to solar panels and 19,000 barrels per day due to wind turbines.

At the moment, it became known that Saudi Arabia will build a wind farm worth $ 500 million. The consortium will be responsible for the project implementation, led by the French energy giant EDF and Masdar from Abu Dhabi. These organizations established cooperation in early 2018.

The tender concerned the construction of a 400 MW wind plant. According to commentators, this is Saudi Arabia’s first major step towards the development of the renewable energy sector and an attempt to generate electricity from sources other than natural gas or oil. The authorities of Saudi Arabia emphasize that the tender is, first of all, the first step towards diversifying the country’s energy balance. The wind energy project should provide energy to approximately 70,000 households per year.

Saudi Arabia also began working with a fund owned by the Japanese technology group SoftBank, with the installation of solar installations worth $ 200 billion.

Investments in renewable energy sources lead to an increase in the number of new jobs and the development of related industries. One example is the Saudi Arabia Mining, which produces phosphates. The company is building a new industrial town in the north-west of the country.

Without switching to alternative energy sources, Saudi Arabia will be forced to increase oil burning. Previous efforts have reduced domestic oil consumption by almost a third.

According to OPEC and the International Energy Agency, investment in renewable and alternative energy sources by 2023 will allow Saudi Arabia to reduce oil consumption by 300,000 barrels of oil.

“Alternative energy sources are a key factor in the country’s economic transformation,” says Fabio Skachchavillani, chief economist at the Oman Investment Fund. “This region has a great competitive advantage when it comes to low energy production costs, and this advantage will grow thanks to investments in renewable energy,” he adds.

Odessa corrupt officials in the power company monopolized the energy market behind the back of the state


Residents of the Odessa region are forced to spend 4 hours in a queue due to the inaction of employees of the local RES. The administration of the organization does not express interest in solving this problem and openly ignores the statements of citizens about problems in the work of their institution.

From the appeal of one of the citizens who suffered from the non-fulfillment of the direct duties of the workers of the RES: “On June 10, the documents for capacity expansion were handed over from 16 kW to 30. KW. At the same time, in Dmitriy Dmitrievna, an employee of Limansky RES, in office 5, she mentioned that the technical conditions would begin to be issued after July 15, but after the visit after July 15, office 5 was informed that now the head of the European Economic Community is on vacation and the technical conditions will begin to be issued even later. The result: more than a month for the consumer to bring money for payment and, accordingly, for the development of the energy market of Ukraine. What kind of rapid development of the country’s energy market are we talking about, if only papers are issued for more than a month? ”

The following message: “I came to the local Liman RES to receive technical conditions and a receipt for payment at 10:10 am, while I had to stand on the stairs almost on the first floor (office 5 which is needed on the second floor). During the queue, the RES worker calls some people, some people also walked past the queue saying “what they are by appointment”, while answering the question of the RES, some Elena Dmitrievna, why they passed the queue, she replies that “they went by appointment”. Neither the site nor anywhere else indicated that “elected people” can be held by appointment. ”

Limited in their rights to receive quality services, citizens of Ukraine, who visited the Odessa RES, noted that the organization’s parking was more like a collection of vintage cars. Such a concentration of expensive cars would be appropriate at the windows of the Verkhovna Rada.

The boiled question: “Bribery and criminal inaction are aimed at insulting citizens or at delaying the development of the energy market?”. Such an approach to the introduction of advanced technologies equates the efforts of the new President of Ukraine in attracting foreign investment to zero. After all, if there is no order inside the country even in matters of issuing the simplest documents, then we cannot talk about multimillion-dollar contracts and world-class trust.

Electricity from alternating magnetism


Scientists from the Institute for Solid State and Materials Science. Leibniz Dresden (IFW) developed a new magnetic generator to convert waste heat into electricity. Due to the thoughtful arrangement of the components, it was possible to increase the electrical current output by an order of magnitude. Thus, thermomagnetic generators correspond to a suitable technology for the extraction of electrical energy from waste heat.

Many processes in everyday life and in industry generate waste heat that is not hot enough to be used effectively. As a rule, it is discharged into the environment unused, for example, in the case of large IT servers or at the exit of a power plant. So far, there are few ready-to-use technologies for converting this low-temperature heat into electricity. High hopes are placed on so-called thermoelectric materials, in which electrical voltage can be generated directly from the temperature difference of the material.

Electricity from temperature changes

Another possibility is the use of thermomagnetic generators. They use the fact that the magnetic properties of some alloys are very temperature dependent. Such a material is, for example, an alloy of elements of lanthanum, iron, cobalt and silicon, which until now has been used for magnetic cooling. At temperatures below 27 degrees Celsius, the material is magnetic, and at higher temperatures – non-magnetic.

If the material is alternately brought into contact with warm and cold water, the magnetization of the material is constantly changing. This, in turn, causes the imposition of a voltage in the wound coil, which can be used for the consumer. This principle of thermomagnetic generators was developed over a hundred years ago. However, the output has so far been significantly lower than that of thermoelectric generators, although theoretical calculations show that much greater results must be achieved.

Productivity is now improved by an order of magnitude

Thanks to the well-thought-out arrangement of the individual components, scientists from IFW Dresden, in cooperation with TU Dresden and the Federal Institute for Materials Science (BAM) in Berlin, have improved the performance characteristics of thermomagnetic generators by an order of magnitude. They used a magnetic circuit of two magnetic sources and two elements of a thermomagnetic alloy.

The individual components are connected to the magnetic conductive material, which is wrapped in a coil in two places. The cold and warm alternating bath of thermomagnetic elements now causes them to alternately conduct or interrupt the magnetic flux. This leads to a constant change in the magnetic flux in the circuits, as a result of which an electrical voltage is induced in the coils.

With a voltage of 0.2 volts and a power of 1.24 milliwatts, the new thermomagnetic generator is not only several orders of magnitude better than its predecessors, but also turns into a possible alternative to thermoelectric generators. In addition, the authors still see many opportunities to further optimize these key figures. They are very confident that improving the thermomagnetic generator will make this technology breakthrough.

Francis Turbine


The Francis Turbine was invented by the American James Francis in 1849. New technical solutions for water turbines have led to the fact that this type of turbine was installed on slopes up to 5 m. Francis turbine solutions are similar to Kaplan turbines with a difference in rotor and steering wheel designs. The flow parts of the Francis turbine are: the steering wheel, the rotor, the suction pipe, and the often encountered body of a special shape in the form of a boiler, funnel, or coil, the task of which is to supply water to the steering wheel (Fig. 1).

The rotor of the Francis turbine consists of two rims connected by blades. Depending on the slope and the power unit, the turbine blades are made in various ways. At altitudes up to 50 m and units of low and medium power, they are made of soft steel sheet under a press, and then connected to cast iron rings when casting or welded with steel rings.

The blades, designed to work on large volumes and more powerful units, are made of cast steel with one or more castings (Fig. 3), and welding is used to connect these elements. The rotor blades rotate around the remote pins that connect the steering wheel cover to its base.

Another solution is a blade connected to the hinges, which rotates on bearings. One of the bearings is installed in the cover, and the other at the base of the steering wheel.

Fig. 1. Francis horizontal shaft with internal regulation; 1 – impeller, 2 – steering wheel cover, 3 – steering wheel support, 4 – adjusting ring, 5 – steering spatula, 6 – connector, 7 – bumper, 8 – turbine shaft, 9 – transverse-axial bearing, 10 – gland, 11 — control shaft, 12 — adjusting lever, 13 — outboard bearing, 14 — stuffing box, 15 — adjusting shaft bearing, 16 — double-lever lever, 17 — adjusting rod, 18 — curvature, 19 — suction pipe, 20 — pipe leakage, 21 – wall ring.

The components of the steering wheel are designed to operate the turbine blades and regulate the flow of water to the rotor. This regulation can be called external regulation, because the control system is outside the space filled with water, whereas if this system is located in a space filled with water, it is an internal regulation (turbines operating in low flow conditions).

Water flowing from the impeller may be directed to the drainage channel by means of a suction pipe with direct suction or curved. The suction pipe creates a negative pressure at the exit of the rotor and is designed to restore some of the kinetic energy of water leaving the impeller.

Francis turbines with vertical shafts (Fig. 2) are used mainly at low altitudes, and in the case of large leaks, turbines with horizontal shafts are used. On slopes of no more than 15 m for low and medium capacity Francis turbines, concrete chambers, open or closed, with slopes of 25 m in a concrete spiral, with slopes of about 100 m in a tin or cast iron chamber are usually constructed, while at even greater slopes spiral made of cast steel. For higher speeds, multi-rotor turbines are used.

Fig. 2. Francis Turbine with Vertical Shaft

The advantages of Francis turbines are the possibility of changing their design, which allows the most advantageous to choose a turbine for the construction of power plants, equipment for power plants and facilities in separate areas.

Fig. 3. Francis turbine rotor.

The disadvantages of the Francis turbines are the frequent occurrence of small leaks at the periphery of the rotor. To eliminate this problem, sealing rings for low flow turbines are used.

Small solar stations are able to save the energy network from overload


Ukrenergo reported that due to the high ambient temperature in the summer, there is a high risk of power outages. The fact is that the temperature of the air this summer is a record one, because failures in the operation of the general power grid for this period can become a rather serious problem.

On the website of the company “Ukrenergo” there is information that the balance of production and consumption of electricity in Ukraine is broken and in a threatening position. Over the past couple of weeks, Ukrainians have experienced an extremely high temperature outside. Forecasters, in turn, recorded record temperature readings. This led to an increase in energy consumption. Peak power consumption was almost 18,000 megawatts.

During the period of increasing air temperature and with peak electricity consumption, the only option to maintain balance is to attract maneuvering capacities to work. According to Ukrenergo, such capacities are available as fuel at TPPs.

The only problem is that at this stage the work of the Ukrainian power grid is carried out in the absence of maneuvering capacities. Complicates the situation and the decommissioning of eight blocks of thermal power plants throughout the country in connection with the repair. The total power loss in this regard is more than two thousand megawatts.

If you do not take measures to introduce maneuverable power, then imbalance in the power system cannot be avoided. As a result – scheduling emergency trips. Ukrenergo does not have an additional resource to cover the peak load on the network. At the moment, this decision is the only correct one.

The premature withdrawal from the repair of blocks of thermal power plants (Zmiyevskaya, Tripoli, Donbassenergo) may have a beneficial effect on the stabilization of the situation. In addition, according to company representatives, the connection of gas and fuel oil units to work can smooth out the situation. Instability in the supply of coal to operating TPPs also creates a number of problems and exacerbates the situation. Ukrenergo appealed to the National Security Council with an official letter, in which the entire severity of the consequences of the imbalance is indicated.

It should be noted that another affordable option to reduce the risk of the situation is to attract small solar power plants. Increased solar activity during peak days entails an increase in the generation of “green” energy. These capacities could be productively used as maneuverable, which currently are not in Ukraine. Only officials are accustomed to solve such problems “in the old-fashioned way” and exacerbate an already difficult situation. Alternative solutions are right in front of the nose and their use would solve the problem of imbalance.

Impact of wind power plants on the environment


The impact of wind power plants on birds is the subject of many foreign and domestic studies.

The main types of negative impact of wind power on avifauna include:

• the possibility of fatal collisions with elements of windmills (mortality from collisions with wind power plants is only 0.01% – 0.02% of all bird deaths);

• direct habitat loss and fragmentation and transformation;

• changing land use patterns;

• creating a barrier effect – changing the route.

From the point of view of impact on livestock, the negative impact of wind farms was not found. The use of grazing land for grazing is common practice. Moreover, turbine towers are a source of shade for animals.

The impact of wind power plants on chiropterofauna (bats) covers the following problems:

– destruction or disturbance of wintering and nesting colonies;

– the intersection of bat flight routes;

– prevention of the use of hunting grounds;

– risk of collision.

Studies commissioned by the Bonneville Administration in the United States found that bat populations migrating at the end of summer and autumn are more vulnerable to collisions with wind power plants, rather than bats inhabiting areas adjacent to wind turbines.

Acoustic effect

Wind turbine is the source of two types of noise:

1) mechanical noise generated by the gear wheel and the generator;

2) aerodynamic noise generated by rotating rotor blades, the intensity of which depends on the speed of rotation of the blades (the so-called tip rotation speed).

Thanks to advanced insulation technology, mechanical noise was limited to lower than aerodynamic noise in currently used turbine models. This is also due to the fact that the level of radiated mechanical noise does not increase with an increase in the size of the turbine at a rate that is observed in the case of aerodynamic noise.

Measurements carried out by the National Institute of Hygiene showed that the sound intensity is at the level of 100–105 dB, under the wind turbine itself – 50 dB, and at a distance of 500 meters it does not exceed 35 dB. It was also found that in practice the sounds of such intensity are not audible, because they are mixed with the noise of the wind and the natural environment.

Infrasound Effect

Wind power plants, due to the nature of the work and the requirements for adequate wind energy, are undoubtedly also a source of infrasonic noise, which, according to many popular opinions, reaches high levels and poses a threat to the environment. Infrasound can spread in the environment even at considerable distances from sources. The main way of perceiving infrasound is the receptors of human vibration sensations. The energy accompanying the infrasound can cause the resonance of the internal organs of a person. Measurements made led to the conclusion that the work of wind farms is not a source of infrasound at levels that may threaten human health.

Due to the lack of criteria for assessing infrasonic noise in the natural environment, criteria at the workplace were used. At a distance of 500 m from the turbine tower, the measured levels of infrasound were close to background levels.

In response to numerous public presentations on the potential negative impact of wind power plants, in particular noise and infrasound, which they emit on human health, the American Wind Energy Association and the Canadian Wind Energy Association created an international interdisciplinary research group in 2009. The group consisted of independent experts in the field of acoustics, audiology, medicine and health care.

The task of the group was to review the most up-to-date literature on the potential negative impact of noise generated by wind power plants on human health and to develop on its basis a comprehensive and public information document on this issue. The result of the group’s work is a report published in December 2009, entitled “The Sound and Effect of a Wind Turbine on Health. Expert panel overview. “The authors of the report have the following observations and come to the following conclusions:

1. Vibrations of the human body caused by the sound of a resonant frequency (that is, the frequency causing an increase in the amplitude of oscillations of the system with which the sound interacts) occur only in the case of very loud sounds. Given the level of noise produced by wind power plants, this does not apply to such a phenomenon.

2. Noise produced by wind power plants does not pose a risk of impairment or loss of hearing. Such a phenomenon can be encountered only when the sound pressure level exceeds 85 dB. The noise emitted by wind power plants does not exceed this sound pressure limit.

3. Experiments have shown that infrasound emitted at a level from 40 to 120 dB does not have a harmful effect on health.

4. The negative impact of wind power plants on the health and well-being of people in many cases is due to the so-called nocebo effect (the opposite of the placebo effect). Anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, nausea, or problems with concentration are common symptoms in every person, and there is no evidence that the frequency of their occurrence is clearly increasing among people living in close proximity to wind power plants. The effect of Nocebo unites the onset of symptoms of this type, not with a potential source of sensation of such discomfort (in this case with a wind power plant), but with a negative attitude towards it and rejection of its presence.

Farming without network access is possible thanks to photovoltaic modules


The use of photovoltaic energy in agriculture is becoming an increasingly popular area. Thanks to renewable energy, farmers can grow birds without access to the grid.

The National Poultry Center at Auburn University (NPTC) has been a leader in poultry farming and related technologies for over a decade. Together with Tyson Foods Inc. They announced the opening of the largest solar farm, which should work outside the network.

The big chicken coop is located in Cullman, Alabama, and can hold 36,000 broilers. Breeding on a farm owned by Tim and Selene Butts will include two identical buildings. One of them will be the control, and the other will be powered exclusively by solar energy. The second building was called the Autonomous Solar Poultry Bunker (SASP).

Auburn University will work closely with Tyson Foods and Southern Solar Systems to gain a leading role in using solar technology at broiler production sites. The purpose of the study is to provide important and new information on how the use of solar energy can balance the environment and increase farmers’ profits.

The power supply of the house will consist of three elements: a solar battery (PV), a set of modules and a generator. Researchers will regularly compare the use of solar energy in the coop with its traditionally functioning twin building for 12 months. The data and knowledge gathered through this project will be an important next step in identifying sustainable methods and new forms of energy for the entire poultry industry.

Ultimately, this project will determine how energy-autonomous chicken coops can increase farmers’ profitability and increase productivity in the poultry industry.

Thanks to the partnership of the poultry company with the University of Auburn, a model of the future of the industry was created, which is more balanced. At the moment, the company provides information previously unavailable to poultry farmers.

The combination of solar energy and batteries with other technologies to convert energy into useful alternating current, which is equal to the power in the network, gives farmers independence from suppliers. Electricity controls all functions in poultry houses and is the largest variable in the value of a business for poultry farmers. The new system can reduce costs for farmers while improving productivity.

Rising energy costs, coupled with the unpredictability of long-term energy supply, have created an opportunity for entrepreneurs to look for solutions that will help mitigate the effects of price increases.

Another example of successful use of photovoltaics in the agricultural business is the modernization of granaries. In Germany, Heliatek and Lechwerke began testing the effectiveness of installing solar modules on granaries.

Both companies installed 230 square meters of solar film on the rough concrete surface of a grain bunker in Donauworth, Germany. It is expected that the plant will produce about 4440 kWh of solar energy per year. Lechwerke and Heliatek want to test the potential of using photovoltaic cells on various surfaces as part of a pilot project.

In addition, companies expect to identify other potential applications, including the installation of PV on the surfaces of factory buildings and warehouses. Even in these cases, the generated solar energy can be used for its own consumption.

Wind turbines with vertical axis of rotation


Wind turbines like VAWT, that is, rotors with a vertical axis, were the earliest types of windmills known in ancient times. Currently, these types of turbines are not industrial applications. There are many varieties with promising features: low power consumption, efficient use on ships, yachts, in homes for one family, etc. Below are some solutions.

 Rotor Savonius

 In 1922, the Finnish engineer Sigurd Y. Savonius developed the construction of a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation. This is a device with a very simple design. The Savonius Rotor is often used as fans who build wind power plants as an economic mode of energy consumption and companies that are professionally involved in the production of wind turbines.

Unfortunately, the Savonius engine is characterized by a low efficiency of converting wind energy into useful energy. However, the Savonius engine differs reliability, simplicity of construction and low production costs.

During many Sandia Laboratories aerodynamic studies, it has been found that for a rotor of Savonius it can be significantly improved in the presence of conditions such as:

– two blades in the rotor – an increase in the number of rotors contributes to improving the efficiency of the turbine;

– the diameter of the gap should correspond to 0.1 – 0.15 cm;

– the shields that restrict the blade from above and below should be 5 – 10% larger than the diameter of the blades, so that the wind “does not go out” from the rotor;

 – In order to align the blades, it is recommended that two such rotors be rotated about 90 degrees around the axis.

 Rotor Darrieus

In 1931 Darrieus patented a rotor, which is now named after his name. Wind turbine of this type has practically zero starting torque, therefore preliminary charge is necessary. For acceleration of the rotor, the Darrieus electric drive is widely used, although non-traditional solutions are used, for example, two Savonius auxiliary rotors.

The Darrieus wind turbine is a device that uses a lifting force created by a fluid flow around a profile of the corresponding shape. The principle of generating a bearing, which in reality generates a torque in the Darrieus engine, as well as in the rotors H, is shown in the figure.

Darrieus turbines have found their greatest application in the US, where the company FloWind has installed a number of such turbines in California. These were buildings of 17 and 19 m in height, put into operation in the following order:

– turbine 142 kW 17 m, with a wind speed of 17 m / s

– a turbine with a capacity of 250 kW 19 m with a wind speed of 20 m / s.

Rotor Bolotov

At the moment, the world community has started to pay particular attention to small wind installations. These include rotor Bolotov. The design of the wind turbine is represented by a power plant in which the generator shaft is located vertically.

A distinctive feature of such a windmill is its versatility in various climatic conditions. This wind turbine captures air flow from all sides, which allows you to not waste time installing it in a certain direction. This wind turbine has the ability to speed up the flow of air entering it. This configuration allows the windmill to work efficiently at any wind speed.

Among the advantages of this wind turbine can be attributed and features of the location of the functional components of the system. Power storage, generator and electrical circuit are located on the ground, which greatly facilitates maintenance.

A unique place in the collection of effective wind turbines is the innovative turbine, which does not have blades. The company from Spain, Vortex Bladeless, managed to open a special vertical structure that became the basis for the turbocharged turbine. Here, the geometry in the tandem with the frequency of fluctuations in the air flow causes the air masses to rotate around this structure.

The alternative equipment has the form of a cone-shaped cylinder located vertically. Pilot installations have a height of about 6 meters, but developers say that the new versions will be even higher. The essence of the work of such a turbine is the presence of magnets and special coils, which not only generate energy, but also rock up the device in the rhythm of air flow. This is possible due to the correct configuration of the structure (meaning the frequency). A loose turbine is actually a resonant wind turbine.

All the most important about inverters. Part two


How to choose the best solar inverter?

Which photoelectric converter to choose? We can talk about two choices: either we customize the solar modules to the solar inverter, or adapt the inverter to the photovoltaic panels.

For maximum efficiency, choose an inverter that can handle between 90 and 110% of the installation. Other sources say that it is from 85 to 125%. In particular, this means that when installing a 3 kW solar panel, an inverter with a power of 2.7 kW to 3.3 kW is required. Why is that? Everything follows from the formula, which allows to calculate the power factor of the inverter – IR. The template looks like this:

inverter power factor IR = module field strength [Wp] * Inverter efficiency [%] / maximum inverter power [W]

We can get three results that show us whether the inverter is underloaded, loaded with a minimum or overloaded with power.

IR <100%, inverter with low values

IR = 100%, inverter loaded with rated power

IR> 100%, the inverter is overloaded on the DC side

However, for each installation it is necessary to calculate the optimal value. This is because it depends on many geoatmospheric factors, the type and orientation of the photovoltaic modules, and how to connect them to the inverter.

The average inverter weighs more than 10 kg, and its installation requires knowledge and experience. When it comes to assembly, we recommend that you turn to professionals.

Solar installation – do you need to monitor the operation of the system?

Installing solar panels along with all the necessary components and cables is part of the whole process. During use it is important to control all parameters of photovoltaic systems. Due to this, we get the optimal energy consumption and can respond to violations.

The easiest way, of course, is to read the data from the display, which reflects all the inverters on the market. However, these data are not always sufficient and complete. That is why many manufacturers and service providers have decided to use additional solutions and special software. Thanks to them, we can not only analyze, but also register the input and output parameters of the inverter, collect data and process them. All through universal network access. Advanced photoelectric converters can be connected to the network, which allows you to automatically transfer data to a data collection and processing center. The inverter owner can view this data using a website or a special application.

Inverter – the price and quality of a good product

There are many inverters from different companies on the market. The most popular ones are:

SMA (Germany)

SolarEdge (Israel)

Enphase (United States)

Fronius (Austria)

Omnick (China)

Goodwe (China)

They differ in many ways as well as in price. Many panel companies put up SMA because, according to the industry, they have good value for money. Models of this company are characterized by efficiency and reliability. However, in recent years, the SolarEdge brand has also risen to this higher level. You can not say that other products are much worse. Each brand has its own premium models that will interest demanding users.

The most important parameters of the solar inverter, which we should pay attention to:

– how fast it searches and maintains the MPP maximum power point

– how high the efficiency of the inverter is at partial load;

– how high the reliability of the device;

– in what temperature range the device can work – it is recommended for those who can work without problems with intervals (from -25 ° C to + 60 ° C);

– how easy it is to manage and control the device, whether it has a remote panel and access to historical data;

– whether it meets all quality and safety standards;

– whether the service is in place or at a distance that can be easily overcome or can be overcome by the service team, it is also important that the service be located in our country.